Archive for October, 2008

More on Hypertext Reading

Recently we have been discussing the qualitative differences between reading a book and reading using hypertext.  I found this article from Freakonomics very relevant.


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Automation vs. Innovation

So I was thinking about this distinction we made in class between “automation” and “innovation,” and I was wondering if, perhaps, it was not so much a “distinction” as two markers on a developmental continuum that has as its origin “need.”  The way I see it automation is innovation—a “new way” of doing something—although innovation, clearly, does not have to be automation, nor, now that I think of it, does it (innovation) necessarily originate in need—the discovery of electricity being just one famous case in point.  Maybe what I am trying to say is that ICT seems to be situated somewhat between (mere) automation of already existing processes and (magical) discovery of entirely new ones—that it is at once connected to and unique from what came before it, but that it has real and practical (and new) uses in the world that are potentially transformative.  Of course, a good many of us still use computers principally to “type” text (automation), but how we type text has changed since we used, say typewriters (innovation), and this “change” is influential not only on the text itself, but also on us, the users (transformation).

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A two-day conference on the Future of Writing will be held at UC Irvine, Nov. 6-7.

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In a recent Education Week commentary, David Polochanin commented on how in preschool, discovering and exploring are the two strongest tenets of curriculum design.  When does schooling become less about discovering and exploring, and why does this happen? In Kindergarten, children are still given time to move about freely, playing house or freely reading and moving about.  Does this freedom end then in first grade when students are usually given a desk or table to sit at?

In order to continue discussing these questions, the ideas of discovering and exploring in the classroom need a more specific definition.  If a teacher stands in front of a class of students and tells them the facts of the curriculum, then it is safe to say the students are not discovering or exploring.  If a teacher stands before a class and using a Socratic type method leads the students to a conclusion they are discovering the answer, but they are not exploring the subject.  They are led to the answer by the quickest path the teacher can get them there.  If the teacher and students share any socio-linguistic knowledge, the student should be able to predict the answers the teacher wants.  Discovering then involves the students using a process to decide upon the knowledge using their own previous knowledge and some guidance.  Exploring is allowing a student to move through a subject with freedom to follow their own interest.

What then is the place of the teacher in a discovering and exploring classroom?  Much like in preschool, teachers can help students by facilitating their learning without directly interfering with their choice of learning.  Students in a preschool classroom I observed move about freely from one area of the classroom to the next.  The teachers facilitated the students by creating learning areas for them.  The teachers used tables, carpets, shelving, and couches to demarcate sections of the classroom.  Each station would be setup with toys, tools, books, and art supplies to facilitate the students learning.  Importantly, the teachers used themselves not as central pieces of the architecture, but as another tool to guide the students work.  They suggested ideas, limited the student ratios, regulated time spent, and above all kept the students happy and learning.  If a student became upset or unruly, often the punishment was redirection to a new station.

When do discovering and exploring return, or do they even ever return?  Barriers to this free form learning lie in the vast amount of knowledge required in the world today.  Exploring and discovering, though they lead to deep knowledge, take time.  There are fears of students learning “garden path” methods of solving a problem.  Standards set a large breadth of knowledge for students, and teachers only have around 15 hours of class time for each unit (based on an estimate of California Social Studies standards).  Still, teachers can still be self reflective and try to incorporate discovering and exploring into their curriculum.  As consumers of education, parents, administrators, and students can support their teachers in the use of discovering and exploring in their classroom.

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Welcome back to Papyrus News!

I first launched Papyrus News on September 5, 1999 as an email list focusing on the intersection of new technologies with language and literacy development, educational and social reform, and cultural diversity.  The list reached a large number of people in countries around the world.

After a hiatus, I re-launched Papyrus News as a blog in 2003, where I continued discussing the same themes on an occasional basis.  However, this past year “occasional” became “rare,” as I became too busy to update it regularly.

I am now fortunate to be surrounded by a number of terrific colleagues in the Digital Learning Lab at the University of California, Irvine.  They have graciously agreed to join me in making the new Papyrus News a collective enterprise.

We will be discussing the same themes as always–the intersection of new digital media with language, literacy, learning, culture, and social development.  And we welcome your interaction and participation through making comments.

To old readers and new, welcome to Papyrus News!

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